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2) Values
Values (variables, "constants", literals, etc):

variable -- has a name, has a value, value can change.
constant -- has a name, has a value which is fixed -- LSL has no real constant support, but when they're necessary, you can fake a constant by using a variable, and never changing its value.
literal -- an actual value that can be assigned to a variable, or used as an argument. (you'll get to this in a sec)

Values have what's called a type as well. Integer, float and string are the most common ones. For a complete list, as well as a discussion of the differences, see the types page.

Examples of usage:

Declaring a variable:
integer score = 0;
string loginName;
The initial (or default) value of 0 has been assigned to a variable score of the type integer. The default value of the variable is optional. Some languages offer implicit default values (usually 0 for integers, the empty string for strings, etc). It's generally intuitive, if supported. The variable loginName of type string is declared, and is empty by implicit default.

Declaring a constant:
integer MAX_MOVES = 10;
It's a good idea to identify constants in a different style than variables, so give a visual reminder that they are not to be modified. I use ALL-CAPS, usually. Note: a default value is specified, and it should be expected by the programmer that this value will not change at runtime.
Technically, LSL does NOT have constants; rather this is a (good) formatting suggestion of a variable.
- I (author) agree; thanks for pointing that out. :-)

Using a literal:
loginName = "testuser";
Here, loginName from our earlier example is being re-assigned to contain the literal string "testuser". So, "testuser" is a literal.

You should take a brief look at the complete list of types. It explains the difference between each one.

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